senses of a dog

When talking about the senses of a dog, it is essential to explore what type of vi- sion they have got. Dogs are dichromats having color vision similar to color blindness in humans. Hence, they have no problem differentiating blue and yellow but have a difficulty in distinguishing between red and green due to the presence of cone photoreceptors with 2 spectral lines unlike humans who have only 3. Instead of brightness, color is used in differentiating shades of grey. The vision of a dog is evolved greatly to help them in hunting. Hence they can detect subtle movements very quickly. Enlarged pupils help them to hunt under low light conditions. The eyes of a dog differ in shape, dimension and retina configuration according to their breed. In general, most dogs have good vision. Dogs have a very good sense of hearing. They can hear frequencies above the human auditory spectrum. Another fascinating thing is they can move their ears to the direction of the sound thus pinpointing the exact location of the source. Eigh- teen or more muscles aid in rotating, tilting, raising or lowering the ear. Dogs have an excellent sense of smell. Their olfactory bulb is around 40 times big- ger than a human’s olfactory bulb in relation to brain size as a whole. In some breeds like the blood hound it is thought to have an olfactory sense of up to 100 million times more than a human. The direction of air which contains the smell could be detected by a wet nose also known as rhinarium. 

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